why do we have more than one kind of nucleic acid and what do they do?
allnucleic acids have different functions and purposes. DNA provides instructions for all of your bodily needs. messenger RNA brings specific instructions from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. transfer RNA carries amino acids to ribosomes. ribosomal RNA is part of the ribosomal structure.
differences between translation and transcription?
*information from DNA goes through transcription to make RNA. this information is sent to the cytoplasm.
how is DNA built?
DNA is built by lining up base pairs (A, T, C, G) with each other and forming a strand known as the double helix. in each pair, there is one nitrogenous base (A, C, T, G), one phosphate group, and one sugar (deoxyribose).
how is DNA packaged?
strands of DNA are wrapped around histone proteins. DNA on histones is then tightly wrapped into chromatin. the chromatin is packaged together closely to form a chromosome, which goes into the nucleus of a cell.
how is DNA copied? why is it copied?
DNA is copied when helicase unzips the double helix structure into two separate strands. DNA polymerase comes and produces the opposite base pairing for each nitrogenous base on one strand of the separated DNA so that there are two exactly identical new strands by the end of the process. it is copied for use in cell replication, so that two new cells will have the same genetic code.
we randomly were given tiles in order to determine the mother and father’s genotypes. these determined the mother and father’s eye color, metabolism, bloodtype and Rh factor, hair color, hair texture etc. some of these traits were normal dominant and recessive, such as one’s Rh factor, because Rh+ is dominant over Rh-, while others showed codominance (blood type A, B, and O) or incomplete dominance (one’s metabolism is a mixture of the parents’ metabolisms.) we also observed sex-linked traits such as hemophilia or color-blindness. these inherited diseases are attached to the X-chromosome and more likely to occur in males because they only have one X-chromosome and cannot be just a carrier, as females can.
multiple alleles: any trait controlled by three or more alleles for one gene
blood type is controlled by I(superscript A), I(with superscript B), and i. I(A) and I(B) are codominant, which means both alleles are equally expressed. if you have both alleles, you will end up with type AB blood since one is not dominant over the other. i is a recessive allele, that represents type O blood.
antigen: antibody generator, typically a protein molecule that will activate an immune response, like an ID badge
antibody: molecule used by the immune system to identify and eradicate foreign substances in the body
law of dominance: dominant alleles overshadow other alleles when both are present
law of segregation: separate alleles in gametes so there is an equal chance of both traits
law of independent assortment: alleles for different traits can be recombined in different ways